Hidden Treasures in the Philippines

Is it true that caches of treasures–notably, Yamashita treasures– are buried in secret places in the Philippines? How did they get there in the first place? Treasure hunting in the country is accompanied by numerous Philippine myths or tales on them—from word of mouth and some even from the news.

Treasure hunting takes place in the country now and then, more so for the Yamashita treasures. Lots were illegal. Philippine legends say treasures are said to come from two sources—the Second World War and the unseen supernatural world.

According to a Philippine myth, Hitler tied up with Italy and Japan, worrying the Allied Forces about Vatican treasures that might fall in The Fuehrer’s hands. They were said to have secretly smuggled out some treasures and kept in England. But Hitler was gaining more ground faster than expected. So they were shipped out to Hongkong. But the Japanese intercepted it and diverted it to Australia.

But a super typhoon destroyed the Japanese fleet and the treasures ended up somewhere between the Visayas and Mindanao. That’s how it came to the Philippines, says a Philippine legend.

The treasures were gradually transported to Manila, says the myth, and portions were stashed away in remote mountains, caves, old churches, old monuments, old trees, or underground.

Then Americans came to free Manila forcing General Yamashita to divide his forces, each carrying enormous amounts of treasures. Some headed north, some to provinces around Manila. Filipino slaves were said to have carried the bulk of the treasures and did lots of the digging, says Philippine legends about them.

The Filipinos were later killed, along with scores of Japanese soldiers, to ensure the treasures’ secrecy. Later, According to the Philippine myth, ranking Japanese soldiers reportedly returned to the country as tourists after the war and recovered a lot of the treasure—again with the help of Filipinos.

Souls of those killed in the course of treasure hiding are said to be guarding them. So ghost stories accompany tales of the Yamashita treasures. They say, where ghosts of Japanese soldiers abound; there a treasure might be hidden. Tales of white ladies are also connected to treasures, more of the Yamashita treasures, according to Philippine myths-—they were rape victims of Japanese soldiers.

The local version of fairy tales has its own story. Local, flat-nosed nymphs, fairies, leprechauns, gnomes, and the like are said to be spirit guardians of unimaginable hoards of wealth—fact is, the tales say, Filipinos are sitting on a mountain of gold. And these are not just natural resources; they are literally treasures of gold.

Philippine myths or legends of treasures never die. They’re taken seriously even by respectable people. And who knows? They might indeed be real, and those of us who laugh at these tales might one day discover too late that the joke was on us.

211 Comments

  1. j1

    I just happen to read your post tonight mr.cenon and I would like to share you some of the artifacts, symbols or signs that I found at a digging site. The place is along the river bank with approximate distance of about 25 meters from the midsection of the stream to the east. The place is stiff and ravine and that is where I started my diggings with some men. We go on a vertical sinking direction of about 22 meters more or less deep until we reached the water table, as we go deeper
    from the starting point we noticed that the earth were loose, proof that somehow somebody had touched the place decades ago. We have noticed pile of rocks arranged properly by human hands and as we dig deeper signs started to manifest at about 20 meters we found the following artifacts a perfect 1/8 share of a pizza like stone with a thickness of about 1 inch, a boat-shaped stone with the length of 5 or 6 inches hand sculpted, a turtle shaped stone, a buddha shaped stone 2 inches height and traces of rust all over the stones, substantial amount of wood charcoal and a bolder rock with a size of a maybe 500-600 mm in diameter. We are experiencing neck deep of water because I believe that we have gone beyond the river stream level now if these signs where of a significance to treasure buried I’ll be inspired to know from you, thank you. 🙂

  2. stuart

    I have a living witness on a private farm in Mindanao, Phillipines, Yamashita. Looking for partners and need 20,000usd . A good split availale. Some artefacts already found.

  3. begol

    we have found sacks of shell, a human bone, in our site. Just recently we have found a dust like Just wanted to ask if there is really gold deposited on it? Please email me your reply

  4. kuya j

    my father used to dig our property… he found signs like rectangle rock with smaller rocks above pasted on it. it has 8 different colored rectangular stones. it is placed inside the shiney half moon shaped stone about 25meters deep in our property…
    are thosemarkings a concrete sign of the treasure?

  5. RANDY B

    TREASURES are difinitely true….. in our place somewhere in the province of zamboanga sibugay, i discovered some codes and signs of treasures, but it is dificult to locate the exact location. we need some detectors to locate…. ….. to: j villanueva, please share your gadgets to us,, this place is still virgin..

  6. almanac

    cenon,

    how good are your friends in interpreting signs? have they gotten some to prove their expertise? no offense pls. just asking, who knows we might come into partnership someday. where are you from?

  7. jardine

    Japanese and other treasure are true…i have been with a group of military intelligence personnel who operated in a site in the mountains of leyte.i myself was a miitary agent at that time 1998.i never had the chance to finish the job with them but when i leave the site the dig was really deep already.i just learned some of the workers died.but i know they continued the work i just dont know if they find the treasure.ive seen all things positively telling that there was something underground.there was a tunnel blocked by a big log and that tunnel was manmade.and knowing it was on a mountain and densely forested area who could be doing such an elaborate and complex kind of work.
    It is true that you would be needing a hefty amount of funding because of the operation cost,like food, equipments such as waterpumps and the length of time to do the job is just unpredictable.so better to have a scanner or at least detector but for me to have both is the best thing to have.it was nice experience and knowing that we are all military agents involved in the digging was kind of a secure operation.ya we have workers who do the digging of course.
    Im here in america now but given a chance.and the capital….i would be digging again soon…

  8. abdulgani

    hidden treasure is a big big true,, co’z i prove some things burried on the ground like coins, guns ,, bomb,on 1998 one korean national and one japanese national will teach me on how to read and understand the treasure code,,ingraving in the stone,and how to find the sign and that time i have treasure map located at gattaran cagayan, san jose city and carranglan boundary, dingalan bay,,san jose boundary i find a big sign of big volume deposit in the stone ifound the place and i prove it.sign of treasure under,, entrance,in that place we found two close tunnel. ??????we close or we stop the operation,,*** I LOVE TREASURE HUNTING***

  9. joel meniado

    we have tried many tresure activity here in our place, 3 diffrnt groups of jap nationals came here to seek a concrete box culvert accross the abandoned rail road track, but they never knew wer it is, we tried to dig other side of the culvert, we un earth the cover engraved w/ a big star like flag of israel w/3 dots at the center, as we reached about 3 meters deep, we encountered a 3 layers of concrete cement like a flooring,about an inch thick and 6 inches in between layers, w/ a blue/greenish soil, and a roll of barbedwire about 3 inhes in diameter, and at 5-6 meters diagonaly we hit a japanese bayonet pointed north west and a plenty of soildizwd leaves many diff kinds of leaves, thers a romurs here that they unload 2 trucks of goldbars and old coins placed in drums, if some one is interested, pls. come and visit me here im from balungao pangasinan fcing mt,balungao

  10. brady rojas

    in my personal opinion yama treasure is 200 percent true in my 2 years ofn treasure hunting we struct the treasures in a tunnel 150 feet below the ground but we never excavate it. we just open the cave breather and boom we found caches of gold, diamonds and platinum. im not joking. to see is to believe e have it. trying to dispose it . we are afraid of our sfety. the good samaritan is a 92 yr old man in our mountain barangay her in mindanao he was formerly the driver of jap officer assign to hide the treasure he just luckily survive by running away when the last box was about to be tow down.God bless

  11. Dan

    As it seems, almost everyone here has already seen one of those treasures. But apparently, there is a lack of material and equipment.
    But come on guys, the pyramides in Egypt were built with manpower only, so it’s hard to imagine u guys sitting around those treasure spots and waiting for someone with heavy equipment. 🙂

  12. billy gella

    Treasure hunting is really true,as matter of fact here in davao city a big hospital building was donated by yamashita group of companies. During the construction the area was enclosed with high fence and some people has witness that one night their was power block out and trucks loaded coming out.
    Many areas are positive but we dont have the capabilities to explore it. If some body can help in terms of equipment, expertise and finances just contact my email so we can form alliance for this treasure hunting endeavor.
    thanks and God bless.

  13. Mr. Bingo

    Im ordinary person in the beginning i dont beleived with this kind of issues, but later i have seen lots of treasure hunter who do expedition in the mountains spending substantial amount of money, but to no avail lady luck did not smiled on them, going home scratching their heads, coz of this reasons i do my own research, it took me a decade before establishing the real truth, how they prepared their maps and kept hidden in the mountains, at present i have pending query to National Geographic Society in Washinton D.C. to help me about the aging process of what i found in the mountain, also if the artifacts are certified true, asking their favorable consideration to turn over to proper authorities, and if possible it must be documented,coz what i found is the missing links in revealing Japanese treasure.any interested person preperably an archeologist, or historians you may get intaouch.

  14. Rolando batistil

    hi everybody, i have ten sites japanese treasure 100% positive, its location @ northern mindanao, i’looking for a person who own the ground penetrating analyzer (gpa 1000)very optimistic we can get by the use of this machine. If you’re interested just contact me

  15. asha

    hello everyone,im one who wish to owned and to have partner who owned the treasure scanner,because in our place has a positive marker and signs,we do not know how to locate it.those who are interested pipol out there,who are willing to be our partner on this matter are welcome.

    asha

  16. francis besana

    mr. cenon :
    im in the middle of my project and have retrive humanbones,my diggers have left me for some reason.the project is positive and i need help.we can make arrangement if ur interested.

  17. JHUN

    if you treasure site with signs of treasure or map just send me a shot photo taken directly from the ground and move away 10 meters from the point of the first and give me the complete address of location province , barangay, barrio were the exact area is located then send it to me will tell the result if your area is with treasure or not. and will negotiate and transact business if you dont have a capacity to do it.

    yours truly

    jhun

  18. dino b.

    I engaged digging since 1998 to date at my own financial capacity, some of which are positive sites, proof? yeah, amazingly great, layer of concrete slabs with japs inscriptions, 4 ft. wd x 12 ft. lenght x 6 inch thickness, and an asphalt and a “lampa” a torch used by japs,using kalboro as lighting fuel, proof that yamashita treasure is true and not a heresy

  19. rolando

    Jim Daniels said:
    Gentlemen,
    As beach comber/coin hunter in Florida, of course I FIRMLY BELIEVE THE EXISTENCE OF YAMASHITA TREASURES !!! there are lots of write ups and websites have been written about these topic…in fact some of my florida based treasure hUnter friends are quite successful with it like Steve Morgan…who had gone to the Philippines to treasure hunt, succeeded to recover several treasure sites(with help of congressman in Albay) and came back to Florida a successful salvor and shipwrecK treasure hunter…am very2 much envius of those yamashita treasure hunters, i wish someday i will be at their level (cache hunter)….

    JIM dANIEL,

    good day. we also have sites here in davao city where several japanese men have unsuccessfully tried to buy for several millions the properties which were the subject of our digging operations several months ago. could you or your friends personally evaluate our areas if indeed there are treasures here in our areas? we have already hit cements in two of our areas. we also found tunnels at the depth of 48 feet..we usually found a very hard cement at 45 feet.. to 48 feet.

    we also have tried to drill bore one area in padada. but we miserably failed because there is something so hard (perhaps a metalic substance) at the dept of 120 feet that a 250kilos drill bore cannot penetrate. some said that the real treasure is just near the said impenetrable hard substance.

    we have heard from successful retrievers that with the right geo equipment ( gpr, etc), you can retrieve the japanese goods at the depth of no more than 30 feet. One person ( who happens to be an engineer in digos) was lucky to have retrieved some goods in digos city at the depth of no more than 15 feet. the said goods was just buried under a big rock in digos.

    we dont ask for funds since our men dont ask for salaries or anything. all they need is the right geo equipment, effective retrieval tools or machines and support for their daily meals during the retrieval operations ( you can personally buy the food and give it to them).

    if you have some friends who are interested, just let them know. I will assure you that we are god fearing persons. please help us in our quest for a better life. i hope some of your friends can help us retrieve the fabled japanese gold. all of us will benefit.

  20. rolando

    we have sites here in digos, davao and padada… perhaps, you personally evaluate the said areas.. all areas are either owned by me or by my brother. security of all person concerned will be assured.

  21. jomar

    hi all
    i am mr. jomar.. who one interested in treasure hunting because that i have a book of treasure code ang sign, symbols, and markings, i have a treasure site here in mati davao orriental and i need a financer, and detector to locate. i found a concrete cement in 3ft. at the top i see a 2 skull and steel bar like U sign.

  22. ROD SUMUGAT

    We dug a very hard cement here in Gensan, we are using diamond cutter, but the process is very slow and there is no power in the area, so we are using generator, in which gasoline is very expensive. Please help me to find find dealer of Dexpan, Bristar or any Non Explosive Demolition Agent equivalent dealer here in Mindanao or Philippines.
    Your help on this matter will be appreciated.
    Thanks and best regards,

    Rod Sumugat

  23. stone cold

    im just started treasure hunting a month ago and so far we have encountered possible sites we have already dug up 28.5 ft, 2.5ft hard concrete mixture of pure sand and cement no stone or pebble target depth 30ft just want to verify if japs use bunker during ww2?,as per detection and mapping we are on top of a 40ftx120plusftx25ft square box any idea?

  24. Jethro14

    From 1965 to 1986, Ferdinand Marcos ruled the Philippines—first as an elected leader, then as a dictator. By the time Marcos was deposed, his personal wealth was estimated at $10 billion. Few dared to challenge Marcos publicly. But on May 5, 1971, a man named Roger Roxas defied Marcos and went public with a daring accusation. He accused the dictator’s soldiers of stealing a rare, solid gold Buddha worth millions.

    In 1970, Roger Roxas and his family lived 200 miles north of Manila on the Philippine island of Luzon. On weekends, Roger spent his time treasure hunting with a large group of Filipinos. One of Roger’s fellow treasure hunters was Albert Fuchigami. Albert had been shown a treasure map by his father, who was an officer in the Japanese Army during World War II. The map pinpointed the location of a secret tunnel system where the Japanese had left behind a fortune in gold bars. Roger was confident his friend was telling the truth:

    “We were friends for a long time before he told me that he knew of a hidden treasure. He revealed to me what he knew about the tunnels. I had very high hopes because Fuchigami was the son of a Japanese soldier.”

    Ferdinand Marcos

    Roger Roxas and Albert hired a crew to excavate the site. In the first few minutes of digging, they found a layer of Japanese shrapnel. A few weeks later, the crew broke through into the tunnels, which the Japanese had apparently dynamited shut. The tunnel system was elaborate, complete with railroad tracks. They found that one explosion had blocked all access to the main underground passageway. Undaunted, they dug around it. Roger Roxas was the first to enter:

    “To my surprise, I found several Japanese skeletons. There must have been more than 10.”

    Roger had stumbled upon a forgotten tomb. It was there, that he made a shocking discovery. Sitting in the cavity was a large solid gold statue of Buddha. Roger and Albert were stunned. While their crew attempted to move the 2,000 pound Buddha, the two explorers ventured further inside the tunnel. Just as the map had predicted, there were boxes and boxes of solid gold bars. Roxas and Fuchigami decided to dynamite the tunnel to hide the treasure. They planned to sell the Buddha to buy trucks and equipment so they could comeback and get the gold out of the tunnel.

    Roger with Buddha, head removed

    Roger took the Buddha home. A potential buyer confirmed that the Buddha was solid gold. After the buyer left, Roger and his brother decided to take a closer look at the Buddha. Roger had noticed that the buyer paid particular attention to the Buddha’s neck:

    “My brother and I had a suspicion that there was an opening inside the Buddha. We got a piece of wood and we hit the Buddha several times with this piece of wood.”

    According to Roger, there were handfuls of diamonds inside the Buddha. Some were rough-cut and some fine. Roger hid the diamonds in a closet. That night, Roger’s brother took pictures of Roger with the Buddha. Roger thought the pictures might protect him, but he was wrong. News of his discovery had already spread all the way to the President’s palace in Manila.

    Although the Philippines was a democracy, Ferdinand Marcos, along with his wife, Imelda, ruled like a king with an iron hand and brute force. Two months after Roger brought the Buddha home, soldiers invaded his house. The red ribbons on their rifles indicated that they were members of President Marcos’ elite Palace Guard. Then out of nowhere, the potential buyer appeared. Roger had been double-crossed:

    “They took everything, even the piggy banks of my children. Whatever my wife inherited, all her jewelry, all the diamonds in the closet. They took all of it. If we had fought back, they would just have killed us.”

    The next day, Roger and his brothers reported the incident to the local police. Then he went to visit Judge Pio Marcos, a family friend:

    “I told him, judge, why did you let them confiscate my treasure, we’re friends. He said, Roger there is nothing that I can do. I said why? He said because the prince asked for it. I said who’s the prince. And he said the prince, President Marcos.”

    According to Roger, the judge warned him that Marcos had put a price on his head. Roger and his family fled to an isolated jungle village to hide.

    While Roger remained secluded, Filipino reporters had already gotten a hold of the story. Marcos allowed the press to view the Buddha. But his political opponents felt that Marcos had substituted a fake. They wanted to embarrass Marcos, so they tracked down Roger and convinced him to return to Manila to identify the Buddha. Marcos was outraged. Once again, Roger went into hiding. But according to Roger, two weeks later he was tracked down by the Palace Guard:

    “Three men approached me and pointed their guns at me. They knew me. They told me Roger, come with us in the car, we will bring you to Manila. I could not escape. I couldn’t escape. I knew they were soldiers. They had guns. They called the palace and they were speaking English. I knew that it was Marcos they were talking to because they addressed him as Mr. President. Marcos must have asked them, are you sure it is Roger Roxas that you captured. And they said yes, we’re sure.”

    The soldiers locked Roger in a hotel and tortured him until he signed a paper stating that he was paid off to lie about the Buddha. The soldiers also wanted Roger to tell them where the gold was hidden. He was tortured daily for several weeks. But Roger had no intentions on telling the soldiers anything:

    “I made a promise to Mr. Fuchigami. I told him even if they to kill me, I will not tell them where the tunnel is.”

    Eventually, Roger was allowed to see his family:

    “My wife was crying. She was surprised. And she said what is happening to you. You know they might kill you. And I said just pray, and then the soldiers took me again.”

    After the brief visit with his family, Roger was taken back to the same hotel where he had been tortured. But this time, he managed to escape through a window in the restroom. After fleeing the hotel, Roger Roxas went into hiding. He never saw the golden Buddha again.

    At least two witnesses claim to have seen the Buddha at one of Marcos’ summer palaces. Ferdinand Marcos died in 1989, but rumors persist that his family still has the golden Buddha.

    Update
    Roger Roxas filed a civil suit to recover the Buddha. But on the day he was set to testify, Roxas collapsed and died. Some reports blame a heart attack, but others allege foul play. The Roxas family has continued legal action against the Marcos estate but the case has been tied up in the court system for more than a decade.

  25. hunter zero

    of course it is true that the legend of the buried and hidden treasures by the Japanese were here in the Philippines.Those who did not believe,they sucks!I myself a tresure hunter can testify that legend cuz i’ve done already treasure hunting operations.Believe it or not, I know we were close to our success and I will just inform you next time if we already hit the prize.Thanxxxxxxxxxxx!

  26. Edwin

    Hi,
    I got a project in Benguet. Unfortunately, I stop the operation due to financial problem. My diggings are located near a creek, the other site is exactly beside a well. Anybody who owns the lists of the different sites of the yamashita treasures, please help me confirm if there is really a hidden treasure on the mountainside of Benguet. If indeed confirm, please email me and I will be willing to discuss about it. Thanks and mabuhay…………….

  27. Jeffrey

    Gud am to everyone… there’s a rumor that there is a treasure in our fish pond in zambales… a national geographic people already said to us that there is a possibility bec. b4 theres a river near our fish pond and japs deposited it there, we already tried to dig it unfortunately there is some spirit guarding it… our truck was almost pulled in the hole… so if u can help me pls! contact me because we are selling our fish pond already… the size is 7.6 hectares

  28. Indiana

    To all who guys who want their site to be detected kindly text or call me. Im using original Accumeter Prop Analog Series. Try to search in the internet so you have an idea about the machine.

  29. dave

    i have only this to say even if your philippineo those of you who did find gold what did you give back to the poor people nothing i bet and im not from here the hell with all of you i hope you all dont find nothing all are greedy people thinking of your selves and im poor my self why would you say anything on here are you all crazy this is the web go back to school.

  30. james

    Sir i have 50pcs of coins elizabeth 1977 did you have a buyer for des?anyway abouy treasure yes im agry dat it was put here in phil. In fack dere was some people in my place dig it and now his a secret millioner

  31. EDMAR E.

    I would appreciate if you can give me some advice how to sell a recovered treasure ( burma gold 6.2 kg )we have some few bars we recovered in our own land in zambales.i have been searching in the website to find gold buyer in the philippines and i find two in manila. i tried to contact them by phone and someone replied and say; yes, we are buying gold in any shape but you have to come to our office in makati to assay first your gold.thier assayor is an ameriacan nationality the co. owner.but i still afraid to go there and bring the gold. please advice. thanks

  32. jazlian

    hi to all mam/sir,anyone can help me pls to read a map that may friend given to me,i have also a artifact a gold plted lead have a sign on his side,i can send you the pctre to read it,thank you….

  33. WalterHero

    Hi there ,

    I am a Foreigner born in the middle east but a Canadian citizen for the last 25 years ! i was in Philippines in 2003 once and in 2013 /Feb last month … i like to get into treasure hunting near Baguio city , in La Union , is that place a potential for finding Ymashita’s gold ? I hear you might say every where has the potential in the philippines !

    It seems it is so hard to cut through the Concrets made to protect the golden bars and as well the Cyanide poisons and Bombs , all these are risky to tackle , however not all might have been barried under those protected measures .

    At what deep in Meters are they hidden Usually ? What is the best metal detectors to use ?

    If found gold i heard you have to remove the serial numbers or any sign pertaining to Yamashita’a gold ,other wise the Banks would cease it , i guess you got to cut the gold in different pieces or Melt it into different smaller portions , and i don’t think it would be possible to take it out of Philippines in your Luggages ! it would be Seized at custom check point, ……… please share you knowledge .

    How long Philippines was occupied by the Japanese ?

    How come they had all this time to make such an advanced Concret structures in such a short time of occupation ?

    Why not use dynamite to break loose the concret ?
    However dynamite would make a big sound and evey one would know you are digging for gold ! How to protect yourself from jealouse Neighbours who might report yout digging to authorities ?

    Waiting to hear from you ..

    Victory to me and all of you to find Yamashita’s gold , at least a good part of it and could have a good life ! maydream come true . AMIN !

  34. roger

    poor guys…mostly of these treasures was recovered by our great president F.E.Marcos.AND WAS deposited in world bank and some bullion of gold in new york twin tower that was intentionally destroyed by those great thieves.but the very proof is spiritual wonder boy handling the testaments including all accounts,even your calculator cannot define how much money we filipinos have.coz we are the true heir of this wealth benefited from our late president f.e. marcos.world banks still keep it in secret and it is really existed.try this website.abovetopsecret.worldbank.marcoswealth and testament.philippines can own this planet f.y.i.

  35. dave

    hi cow boy dave if your still in the philippines i would like to talk to you i live here all so and i like to look for rings any thing of value there so busy looking for the big things there leaving all the small things for me hahaha what do they know im retired at 57 if you need a friend let me know i have nothing to do i liked you trying to help people on here but sir dont waist your breath i tryed to help he told me to go fuck my self my wife told me they will all be killed or end up in jail they will not listen i respect you for trying if you need a friend that likes this hobby like you all my life all so we can talk my name is dave all so.

  36. misty

    hey there… i think if your gold is real you will not hesitate to go there make the a.ssay and prove to them that what you have is real gold. Nobody cheat, its only you that will cheat your self. If your reading this by now that is my best advice to you. After all nobody seems to really believe, it just a hearsay and full of hallucinations. you know why, I dig…. dig…. but no luck, its really full of fantasy

  37. high both daves i have been here for five years i loaned my dector out to two guys they got rich i got not one peso philippines are very cheap and wont give any poor person nothing and watch out if you find some thing they wil kill you i all so look for rings i have good luck but a lot of work im all so not from here if i ever find gold on any ones land they will have a new house and a lot of money my name is all so dave watch out for all the scams they all need to go back to school talking on here hahaha if you need a friend with the same hobby im here.

  38. ener

    hi,,am just want to share my successfull experienced of japanese treasure burried in cebu province…one moment i meet a japanese woman..that relative of yamashita clan…she teach me how to know and locate marking sights of burried treasure..i try not to beleive her,,but when i try to follow her instruction..i found out that it was true..i got jewelries of gold..that put in the gallon glass…now,,some of this site that she told me are still intact and nobody knows it…except one of the site that hit by the road extention…but some other site are still intact..so to those who are seeking tha burried treasure..dont loose hope…its still there waiting for the lucky person who can explore it….gudluck….god bless always…

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